Death penalty abolished November 2015 by Constitution. A total of 20 states – plus Washington D.C. – have abolished the death penalty. Death penalty for murder, terrorism, participating in a gang robbery if one of the robbers commits murder, abetting a successful mutiny, assault by a person under a life sentence which causing harm, assault with the intention to murder which causing only harm, perjury causing wrongful execution, Death penalty for murder, drug trafficking, arson, piracy, terrorism, kidnapping, recividism of aggravated offenses punishable by life imprisonment, leading an armed group that engages in spreading disorder (such as by sabotage, pillage or killing), espionage, treason and perjury causing wrongful execution. 24 (56%) maintain the death penalty in both law and practice. In 2016, there were approximately 30 new death sentences—down from a record high of 315 in 1996. Abolished 2016 for ordinary crimes, 2017 for all crimes. To wit, death sentences are handed down and carried out regularly, most recently in 2020. [16] Chad abolished capital punishment for all offences in 2020. The June 29, 1972 Furman v. Georgia Supreme Court ruling placed a de facto moratorium on the death penalty in the United States. Death penalty for treason; terrorism; espionage; genocide; mutiny; desertion in times of war. [246] Nevertheless, Myanmar is regarded as “abolitionist in practice” by both Amnesty International[247] and Death Penalty Watch.[248]. [17] In Iran and Saudi Arabia, the numbers of executions are also very high. Abolishing the Death Penalty: As of July, 2018, according to Amnesty International, the capital punishment has been retained by the 56 countries of the 198 United Nations states. It is believed Britain influenced America's use of the death penalty more than any other country, with the first recorded execution of Captain George Kendall in the Jamestown colony of Virginia in 1608. 2 (14%) permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 04:49. The following is a summary of the use of capital punishment by country. Of the 43 independent countries in Asia that are UN member or observer states: The information above is accurate as of 2021[update], when Kazakhstan abolished the death penalty, and does not include Taiwan, which is not currently a UN member; Taiwan practises the death penalty by shooting, and conducted one execution in 2016 and one in 2018. Death penalty for treason; insurgency, banditry, sabotage or terrorism resulting in death; perjury in a capital case leading to wrongful execution; murder; attempted murder causing injury by a person sentenced to life for a previous murder; brigandage with murder; and drug dealing under aggravated circumstances. Hong Kong and Macau are also listed below (they have abolished the death penalty), but they are not included in the figures above as they do not have UN membership separate from China. The United Nations passed a non-binding resolution calling for a worldwide moratorium on the death penalty on 2007-DEC-18. Countries that have recently abolished the death penalty: As of the end of 2006, 86 countries no longer have the death penalty. According to Amnesty International, as of July 2015, 101 countries have abolished the death penalty for all crimes in law, while 140 countries have abolished the death penalty in law or practice. In Israel and Chile, it is restricted to crimes committed in wartime. Seven countries, including Brazil, Chile and Kazakhstan have abolished it for ordinary crimes. In 1999 the Latvian parliament voted to ratify Protocol No. Amnesty International’s 2019 annual Global Report on Death Sentences and Executions reported that, as of December 31, 2019, more than two-thirds of the world’s countries had abolished the death penalty in law or practice. "Almost 80% of African countries have abolished the death penalty in law or practice. 1. They were the first U.S. state to do so in 40 years. The last execution on Russian territory was in Chechnya in 1999. [104] Each of the 36 states has its own laws. Hanging, shooting. 30 executions have taken place in India since 1991. At the end is a list of countries which have abolished the death penalty since 1976. For 40 years, we have been working to end executions. [1], Historically, capital punishment has been used in almost every part of the world. The self-proclaimed state of Transnistria, which is claimed by Moldova, still retains the death penalty but has observed a moratorium on executions since 1999. Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the icon. Just over half the countries in the world – 106 – no longer had the death penalty by 2018, according to Amnesty International. In the hundred years following the abolition of capital punishment by Venezuela in 1863 only 11 more countries followed, not counting temporary abolitions which were later reversed. Death penalty suspended following UN administration in 1999 when still a province of Indonesia. More than two-thirds are abolitionist in law or practice. Death penalty for treason, murder and terrorism. As per current data, there are 58 … In Europe, only Belarus and the unrecognized Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic continue to actively use capital punishment. There have been three major amnesties (1989, 1993, 1997) in which the government commuted death sentences to life sentences or less, and simultaneously reduced life sentences to 10 years. In 2000 it had ratified Protocol No. Libya executed more people (18) in 2010, than any other African state. Wa state (officially the Wa Self-Administered Division) is nominally a semi-autonomous division located in two disconnected regions within Shan State. China is the world's most active death penalty country; according to Amnesty International, China executes more people than the rest of the world combined per annum. [2][3][4][5][6][7][8] The use of capital punishment is usually divided into the four categories set out below. Since 1976, more than 75 nations have abolished the death penalty for all crimes, while others have abolished it for ordinary crimes. The court has abolished the death penalty for mentally disabled offenders (Atkins v.Virginia, 2002), juvenile offenders (Roper v.Simmons, 2005), and for those convicted of raping a child where death was not the intended or actual result (Kennedy v. In 2007 Albania ratified Protocol No. Which countries use the death penalty and which don’t? Hanging. According to deathpenaltyinfo.org 28 states out of 50 have the death penalty in the United States. The countries where these still occur are North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Somalia according to research carried out by Amnesty International in 2012. In 1997 Hong Kong was returned to Chinese rule as a special administrative region of China. Officially, only 16 countries (including Egypt, Nigeria, Somalia, Libya and Sudan) have and maintain the death penalty in both law and practice. The current Constitution of Brazil (1988) expressly forbids the use of capital punishment, except for military offences committed during a war duly declared by Congress. Of the 66 sovereign states categorized as 'very high' on the 2020 issue of the Human Development Index (referring to 2019),[15] 12 perform capital punishment: Singapore, the United States, Japan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman, Belarus, Kuwait, Qatar, Malaysia, and Taiwan. Prohibited by the. 6 to the European Convention on Human Rights, abolishing the death penalty for peacetime offenses.6. In North Korea, the state utilizes the death penalty against high-level criminals and those suspected of committing "grave" offences. "Portuguese Constitution of 1933 - Part I, Title II, Article 8º, Nº11: [Translation]: "Article 3 of Law 635 - Amendment to the Portuguese Constitution of 1911 - The exception on the article of the death penalty: [Translation], "Ley Orgánica 11/1995, de 27 de noviembre, de abolición de la pena de muerte en tiempo de guerra", "Turkey's parliament 'to consider reintroducing death penalty. Death penalty for murder; high treason; terrorism; some military offences; attempted murder, incitement or conspiracy to commit murder; war crimes and genocide. In 2012, Latvia became the last EU Member State to abolish capital punishment in wartime.[24]. Its existence can be traced to the beginning of the American colonies. Last execution when occupied by South Africa was in 1988. In the Caribbean countries, the death penalty exists at least de jure, except in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, which abolished it in 1969 and 1987, respectively. 7 (13%) maintain the death penalty in both law and practice. Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the United States, currently used by 28 states, American Samoa, the federal government, and the military. In the republican era, all military death sentences imposed for crimes committed during wartime (the Second World War was Brazil's last international military conflict) were similarly commuted and not carried out. Botswana, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Libya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Nigeria are examples of countries that execute people. Hanging. Its ratification of Protocol No. Abolition is also a pre-condition for entry into the European Union. Three countries have signed treaties to abolish the death penalty, but not have not yet ratified them: Angola, Madagascar, Sao Tome and … Chad became the latest African nation to ban capital punishment, when it passed the law in April 2020. The last execution elsewhere in the region was in Saint Kitts and Nevis in 2008. This is a significant decrease from 20 years ago in 1995, when there were executions in 42 countries, highlighting the clear global trend of states moving away from the death penalty. This is a increase from 16 in 1977. Today, over two thirds of the world’s countries have abolished the death penalty in law or in practice. Currently, the large majority of countries have either abolished or discontinued the practice. More than two thirds of countries have struck capital punishment from their statutes, or at least for all practical purposes. The latest execution was that of four perpetrators of a gang rape and murder case on 20 March 2020. Significant Litigation. At least 20 countries performed executions in 2019:[26][27][28]. The death penalty has declined dramatically around the world in recent years. 8 (18%) permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years. Despite this it was reinstated on several occasions: On 26 August 2008, a new Code of Military Justice was promulgated that abolished death penalty. Current laws allow capital punishment for. This, however, is far more than half the number of murders amongst the five countries with the penalty still in force. Japan has the highest inequality-adjusted HDI (Human Development Index, of the United Nations Development Programme) of any country to use the death penalty; Singapore has the highest unadjusted HDI. 36 countries abolished capital punishment in the 1990s, with 9 in 1990 alone, 23 in the 2000s, 11 in the 2010s, and 2 so far in the 2020s. Countries That Still Have The Death Penalty. 1 (2%) retain it for crimes committed in exceptional circumstances (such as in time of war). At least one execution may have been carried out between 1999 and 2008, but this remains unconfirmed. Of the 49 independent states in Europe that are UN members or have UN Observer status: Abolition of death penalty is a pre-condition for entry into the European Union, which considers capital punishment a "cruel and inhuman" practice and "not been shown in any way to act as a deterrent to crime".[300]. Globally, of the 193 United Nations states, 54 countries retain capital punishment, 108 countries have completely abolished it de jure for all crimes, 7 have abolished it for ordinary crimes (while maintaining it for special circumstances such as war crimes) and 27 are abolitionist in practice. When Amnesty started its work in 1977, only 16 countries had totally abolished the death penalty. Kazakhstan has abolished the death penalty, making permanent a nearly 20-year freeze on capital punishment in the Central Asian country, according to a notice on the presidential website. Death penalty for murder; terrorism; kidnapping; rape; robbery if the offender uses or threatens to use a deadly weapon, resulting in death or causing "grievous harm" to anyone; smuggling if the offender uses or threatens to use a deadly weapon, resulting in death or causing "grievous harm" to anyone; treason and some military offences. Brazil has always maintained the death penalty in wartime as part of its Military Code but, after Brazil became a Republic in 1889, capital punishment for civil offenses or for military offences committed in peacetime was abolished by the first republican Constitution, adopted in 1891. The most recent countries to abolish capital punishment in Oceania are Samoa (2004), Fiji (2015), and Nauru (2016). Since 1999, Belarus has been the only recognized country in Europe to carry out executions. In countries which have not abolished the death penalty, capital punishment may be imposed only for the most serious crimes, it being understood that their scope should not go beyond intentional crimes with lethal or other extremely grave consequences. Abolished March 1990 by Constitution. Nearly all countries in this region have abolished the death penalty as a form of punishment, … Interactive map: The death penalty around the world The interactive map is in French. [19] It shows that in the past decade, an average of over three countries a year have abolished the death penalty in law or, having done so for ordinary offences, have gone on to abolish it … Only one civilian was sentenced to death in the republican period, in 1969, but the sentence was commuted and was not carried out. Precise numbers are not available for many countries, so the total number of executions is unknown. [151] The last person to suffer the death penalty in Brazil was executed in 1876, during the Imperial era. Nismo imali izbora, morali smo ga osuditi na strijeljanje", "The Constitution of the Republic of Croatia", http://expresso.sapo.pt/sociedade/2017-06-30-Ha-100-anos-a-espera-de-um-perdao-do-Estado-portugues#gs._cRmMTE. In 2005 Liberia ratified the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, abolishing the death penalty for all crimes.9. Kazakhstan also announced measures to start the process of joining the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which commits states to abolishing the death penalty. Firing squad. Last year, a man who killed two women using a hammer and knives was executed with a … According to a 2017 report by the Myanmar National Human Rights Commission, 709 prisoners in 26 prisons across the country have had death sentences commuted to life imprisonment. 2. This trend away from capital punishment can be seen in the United States as well. Between 6 September 1930 by martial law until 20 February 1932. International Actors, Democratization and the Rule of Law: Anchoring Democracy? Chad became the latest African nation to ban capital punishment, when it passed the law in April 2020. Currently (2020), the United States is the only country in the Americas to conduct executions for civil purposes. In Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Peru, the death penalty is only legal in exceptional/special circumstances such as for crimes committed in wartime and was abolished for other crimes. Nowadays, more than two-thirds of countries in the world have abolished capital punishment. Meanwhile the five such countries who have abolished the death penalty for all crimes are Honduras, Venezuela, Colombia, South Africa and Ecuador, with average homicides of 41.3 per 100,000 people. Guatemala abolished the death penalty for civil cases in 2017. The tendency to execute criminals is decreasing. In addition, about 50 other countries are abolitionist in practice. 1998 (for all crimes in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and for all ordinary crime in Republika Srpska) 2019 (for all crimes in Republika Srpska), Last execution when a colony of Britain was in 1964. Death penalty for murder; blasphemy; homosexuality; adultery; treason; rape; robbery; incest; assisting the suicide of a person legally unable to consent; perjury in a capital case causing wrongful execution; terrorism; terrorist acts; some military offences; sodomy;[103] kidnapping and practice of indigenous beliefs in states applying Shariah law. The last known executions in this region took place in Tonga in 1982. [20], The European Union holds a strong position against the death penalty; its abolition is a key objective for the Union's human rights policy. Firing squad. In 2018, Burkina Faso repealed the death penalty for ordinary crimes, and The Gambia announced a moratorium as a first step toward abolition. Countries whose laws provide for the death penalty only for exceptional crimes such as crimes under military law or crimes committed in exceptional circumstances BRAZIL GUATEMALA The death penalty in China", India Executues Four Men Convicted of Bus Gang Rape and Murder, "Indonesian and three Nigerians executed for drug crimes", "Execution of women in tandem, Iran Hangs Two Women", "Iran executions see 'unprecedented spike' - Amnesty", "Iran - Facts on Trafficking and Prostitution", https://twitter.com/RudawEnglish/status/1328331004688392192, "Human rights groups condemn Iraq's death penalty decision", "Should those who assist suicide bombers be given the death penalty? Amnesty International understands that Hong Kong will remain abolitionist.5. Most executions worldwide take place in Asia. Only three industrialized democracies still execute people: Japan, South Korea, and most states in the U.S. 13 to the European Convention on Human Rights, abolishing the death penalty in all circumstances. The information above is accurate as of 2020[update], when Chad abolished capital punishment. The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is only partly recognised, and claimed in whole by. Number of African countries abolished death penalty in past decade. The countries where these still occur are North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Somalia according to research carried out by Amnesty International in 2012. No additional countries banned the death penalty in 2019 for the second year in a row, but Amnesty says that 142 countries have either abolished the death penalty in law or in practice. Of all modern European countries, San Marino, Portugal and the Netherlands were the first to abolish capital punishment, whereas only Belarus still practices capital punishment in some form or another. Of the 14 independent countries in Oceania that are UN member or observer states: Only Papua New Guinea and Tonga have not formally abolished capital punishment despite not using the practice since 1954 and 1982 respectively. The absolute ban on the death penalty is enshrined in both the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (EU) and two widely adopted protocols of the European Convention on Human Rights of the Council of Europe, and is thus considered a central value. The table below presents the countries that have abolished the death penalty, in order of the year in which it was abolished. Northern (majority Muslim) states also apply Sharia law. Of the 12 countries with a "very high" Human Development Index which practice executions, 10 are in Asia: Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Between 9 June 1956 by martial law imposing. The countries in the Americas that most recently abolished the death penalty are Suriname (2015), Argentina (2009), and Bolivia (2009). Death penalty for aggravated murder, murder, public comments, rape (if it results in the death of the victim), barbaric actions including torture, and aggravated rape. Death Penalty Information Center | 1701 K Street NW Suite 205 Washington, DC 20006, Phone: 202-289-2275 | Email: [email protected], Privacy Policy | ©2021 Death Penalty Information Center, Countries That Have Abolished the Death Penalty Since 1976. Year after year, we can observe a downward trend in the number of death sentences and executions worldwide. In South Korea, Russia, the Bahamas, Barbados, and Brunei, a moratorium is in practice. Death penalty for murder, armed robbery, espionage, treason, economic crimes, military offenses, war crimes and genocide. Abolished by constitution 2002. After 1876, Emperor Pedro II adopted in practice an abolitionist policy through his prerrogative of Mercy as Head of State, by directing that all death sentences be submitted by the Courts to the Imperial Government for examination regarding commutation (even without a request for pardon or commutation from the person condemned), and by granting commutations for all death sentences that were passed. However, prisoners held for political crimes, or crimes against the state are typically excluded from such amnesties. Abolishing the Death Penalty: As of July, 2018, according to Amnesty International, the capital punishment has been retained by the 56 countries of the 198 United Nations states. 13 (37%) permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years. The U.S., supported by Syria, Iran, China and other dictatorships, opposed the resolution. From the 1960s onwards, abolition became far more popular. Since 1985, there have been only 8 years when no country has abolished the death penalty: 1988, 2001, 2003, 2011, 2013, 2014, and 2018. Death penalty abolished in revised 2009 criminal code. Of the 54 independent states in Africa that are UN members: Many African countries have carried out no executions for over 10 years, but are not believed to have an abolitionist policy or established practice. Firing squad, hanging. CCPR/C/79/Add.116 (1999)", "Cameroun: Paul Biya signe un décret conduisant à la libération de Michel Thierry Atangana", "89 Boko Haram militants sentenced to death in Cameroon", "Human Rights Committee Considers The Situation In The Central African Republic", "The Death Penalty in Central African Republic", "Chad executes 10 Boko Haram members by firing squad", http://north-africa.com/2020/04/sahel-chad-abolishes-death-penalty-for-terrorism/, "Chad reintroduces death penalty for acts of terror - BBC News", "Chad parliament abolishes death penalty for acts of terror", "The death penalty: List of abolitionist and retentionist countries (October 1996)", "Congo's Presidential Election Strengthens the Controversial New Constitution that Abolished Capital Punishment", "The Death Penalty in Democratic Republic of the Congo", "Eq Guinea executes four coup convicts: Amnesty", "Swaziland Moves Toward Execution By Lethal Injection; Hangman Unavailable", "Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee, Gabon, U.N. Doc. In Africa, there are several countries that use the death penalty. Firing squad. NUR-SULTAN – The government of Kazakhstan has abolished the capital punishment, after a nearly 20-year freeze on death penalty in the Central Asian country, a … At least two executions were recorded in Belarus in 2019, compared to at least four in 2018. [21][22][23], Capital punishment has been completely abolished in all European countries except for Belarus and Russia, the latter of which has a moratorium and has not conducted an execution since 1999. 24 (44%) permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years. Montenegro had already abolished the death penalty in 2002 when it was part of a state union with Serbia. In Central and South America, the death penalty exists in Belize and Guyana, though it has not been used in years. Amnesty opposes the death penalty at all times – regardless of who is accused, the crime, guilt or innocence or method of execution. Opinion polls state sentiment for governments to return to capital punishment remains high in many Caribbean countries and pressure on politicians to retain it factors high. Executions in Africa in 2019: Botswana (1), Egypt (29+), Somalia (13+), South Sudan (7+)[30][31] Every victim has a right to see the person responsible held to account in a court of law; but the death penalty is not justice, it is revenge. The first state to do this was Wisconsin, which made the punishment illegal in the year 1853. The last execution in the Caribbean, and the last in the Americas outside the United States, was in Saint Kitts and Nevis in 2008. 16 (46%) have abolished capital punishment. All other countries in this category have abolished capital punishment. The last time another country in the region carried out executions was in 2005. Death penalty for murder; aggravated robbery; high treason. Of the other former Soviet republics, only Belarus and Tajikistan have not formally abolished capital punishment, and only Belarus uses it in practice. Most of these are in Western Europe and the Americas. Countries which have abolished and since reinstated (e.g. "The death penalty does not exist" (Article 15). Abolished in 1910 by Constitutional reform. Hanging. Slovenia and Croatia abolished the death penalty while they were still republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Death penalty for. An other de facto autonomous region, Mong La (officially: Shan State Special region 4) on the Myanmar-Chinese border under the control of the National Democratic Alliance Army (NDAA) is also reputed to carry out executions much like Wa State,[251] however information is less reliable as executions are not officially announced. 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