These bears are threatened by heavy deforestation and illegal hunting for food and the wildlife trade; they are also harmed in conflicts with humans when they enter farmlands, plantations and orchards. [64] A report published by TRAFFIC in 2011 showed that sun bears, along with Asian black bears and brown bears, are specifically targeted for the bear bile trade in southeastern Asia, and are kept in bear farms in Laos, Vietnam, and Myanmar. Disclaimer. The brown bear/polar bear lineage was estimated to have diverged from the two black bears/sun bear lineage around 5.54 to 6.72 million years ago; the sun bear appears to have diverged from the two black bears 5.09–6.26 mya. [14] In 1906, Richard Lydekker proposed another subspecies by the name H. m. wardii for a sun bear skull, noting its similarities to a skull from Tibet with a thicker coat; however the Tibetan specimen was later found to be an Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus). Its unique morpholo… [1][41] Tigers are major predators; dholes and leopards have also been recorded preying on sun bears but cases are relatively fewer. All free photos on this site are public domain. [33] The head is large, broad and heavy in proportion to the body, but the ears are proportionately smaller; the palate is wide in proportion to the skull. sun bear: A bear (Helarctos malayanus) native to Southeast Asian forests, having black fur with a gray to orange muzzle and a tawny, crescent-shaped chest marking. The major habitats in southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia are moist evergreen forests, with more or less non-varying climate and heavy rainfall throughout the year, and low-lying or montane dipterocarp forests. Sun bears get their name from the characteristic orange to cream coloured chest patch. [50], Sun bears are polyoestrous; births occur throughout the year. The sun bear is named so for its characteristic orange to cream coloured, crescent-like chest patch. [54][55][56] However they have been seen in farmlands, plantations and orchards, where they may be considered vermin. [18] In 2002, Christopher Fitzgerald and Paul Krausman (of the American Society of Mammalogists) considered the sun bear monotypic. Sun bears grow to only about half the size of an American black bear. sun bear - definition and meaning Reproduction is dioecious.They rely on running to move around. Mangroves may be inhabited, but usually only when they are close to preferred habitat types. [66] A study in Nagaland (northeastern India) recorded a sparse distribution of sun bears in the Fakim and Ntangki National Parks, and reported extensive illegal hunting for food and trade in bear parts. [71] Since that same year, the European breed registry for sun bears is kept in the Cologne Zoological Garden, Germany. Sun bears were killed by shooting or administering poison to protect coconut and snakefruit plantations in East Kalimantan. Sun bears disappeared from Singapore, possibly due to extensive deforestation, during the 1800s and 1900s. [53] Sun bears are extinct in Singapore. any small lustrous beetle of the genus Amara. [8][37][38] It is also an efficient swimmer. A bear (Helarctos malayanus) native to Southeast Asian forests, having black fur with a gray to orange muzzle and a tawny, crescent-shaped chest marking. [8][3] Infants are greyish black with a pale brown or white snout and the chest patch is dirty white; the coat of older juveniles may be dark brown. oriental. What does it eat? Offspring remain with their mother for nearly the first three years of their lives. The global population is estimated to have declined by 35% over the past three decades. sun bear n a small bear, Helarctos malayanus, of tropical forests in S and SE Asia, having a black coat and a yellowish snout and feeding mostly on honey and insects, (Also called) honey bear [4] Sun bears are noted for their intelligence; a captive bear observed sugar being stored in a cupboard then locked by a key, and later used its own claw to open the lock. [28] The edges of the paws are tan or brown, and the soles are fur-less, which possibly is an adaptation for climbing trees. Heavy deforestation (due to agriculture, logging and forest fires) and hunting for wildlife trade are severe threats throughout the range; human-bear conflicts are a relatively minor threat. Origin Early 19th century; earliest use found in Edward Griffith (1790–1858), naturalist. [3][34] Reported lengths for pregnancies vary from 95 to 240 days; pregnancy tends to be longer in zoos in temperate climate possibly due to delay in implantation or fertilisation. The IUCN has listed this species as vulnerable. Their range is probably greater than what is actually known (Sanderson, 1972; Ward and Kynaston, 1995). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [59], In the past sun bears ranged from Borneo and Sumatra in the north and Assam in the northwest to northeastern Vietnam in the northeast and at least Yunnan Province (China) in the east. [25], The sun bear is the smallest of all bear species. [37] Cubs are born deaf with eyes closed. orso del sole en A bear of the species Helarctos malayanus. [19] Noting the production of fertile hybrids between sun bears and sloth bears (Melursus ursinus), it was proposed that Helarctos be treated as a synonym of Melursus. In mountainous areas, Asian black bears are more common than sun bears, probably due to scarcity of invertebrates to feed on. It is the smallest bear, standing nearly 70 centimetres (28 inches) at the shoulder and weighing 25–65 kilograms (55–143 pounds). It is stockily built, with large paws, strongly curved claws, small rounded ears and a short snout. Mothers protect their cubs aggressively. [1] With the exception of Sarawak (Malaysia) and Cambodia, the sun bear is legally protected from hunting in its whole range. [22][23] A 2007 phylogenetic study gives the relationships of the sun bear with other species of Ursidae based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences as shown in the cladogram below. Whilst our guides have sighted sun bears in Danum Valley on very rare occasions your best chance of seeing sun bears is at the Borneo Sun … Litters comprise one or two cubs that remain with their mother for around three years. It is found in Southeast Asia, including the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. The Malayan Sun Bear or Beruang Matahari is scientifically known as Helarctos malayanus and belongs to the family Ursidae. The range of the sun bear is bound by northeastern India to the north and extends south to southeast through Bangladesh, Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam in mainland Asia to Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia to the south. [3][26] Sun bears can expose the patch while standing on their hindfeet as a threat display against enemies. noun (Zoöl.) The underfur is particularly thick and black in adults, while the guard hairs are lighter. [24] However, the phylogenetic tree constructed by a nuclear gene sequencing analysis in 2008 swapped the positions of the sun bear and the sloth bear obtained in the previous study; moreover, all relationships other these two positions were well resolved. In its natural habitat, it is an opportunistic omnivore. Other items of its omnivorous diet include fruit, honey, and small vertebrates. The sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) is a species in the family Ursidae occurring in the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. However, to make things ‘easier’ for identification: both species are black, both have a light mark on their chest, and both bears pretty much share the same habitat and range in Thailand. Sun bears get their name from the characteristic orange to cream coloured chest patch. [1], These bears dwell primarily in two main types of forests throughout their range: deciduous and seasonally evergreen forests to the north of the Isthmus of Kra, and non-seasonal evergreen forests in Indonesia and Malaysia. The sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), also known as the honey bear, is a bear found primarily in the tropical rainforest (the dense lowland forests) in Southeast Asia; North-East India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Southern China, Peninsular Malaysia, … The tail is 3–7 cm (1–3 in) long. Habitat fragmentation is on the rise particularly in Borneo, Sumatra and some areas of the mainland range. 34. an act of holding fast with the hand or other physical means; grasp; grip: a good hold on the rope. The fur is generally jet-black, but can vary from grey to red. The head-and-body length is between 100 and 140 centimetres (39 and 55 inches), and the shoulder height is nearly 70 cm (28 in). [8][44] Vertebrates such as birds, deer, eggs and reptiles may be eaten occasionally. It is not required but it'd be much appreciated. Sun bears tend to remain solitary but sometimes occur in pairs (such as a mother and her cub). Atlas » Learn more about the world with our collection of regional and country maps. ~, Helarctos malayanus Subspecies Borneo ~ Helarctos malayanus euryspilus Habitat Sun bears are found in dense lowland tropical forests. [1][26] Compared to other continents, southeastern Asia has undergone severe depletion in forest cover over the past few decades (by almost 12% between 1990 and 2010); this has resulted in substantial habitat loss for forest-dependent species such as sun bears. Lifespan in captivity is generally over 20 years; one individual lived for nearly 31 years. They occur in montane areas in northeast India, but may not extend farther north into the unfavourable and colder Himalayan region; their distribution might be restricted to the northwest due to competition with sloth bears. The sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) is a species in the family Ursidae occurring in the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. They also break termite mounds and quickly lick and suck the contents, holding pieces of the broken mound with their front paws. [3][8] Sun bears do not seem to hibernate, possibly because food resources are available the whole year throughout the range. [39][40], Sun bears are shy and reclusive animals, and usually do not attack humans unless provoked to do so, or if they are injured or with their cubs; their timid nature led these bears to be tamed often and kept as pets in the past. [72], Bear from tropical forests of Southeast Asia, 10.1644/1545-1410(2002)696<0001:HM>2.0.CO;2, "XVII. Cubs younger than two months are dependent on external simulation for defecation. Subspecies: H. malayanus, H. euryspilus. [3][27] They are typically solitary but are sometimes seen in pairs (such as mothers and cubs). [50] Sun bears have been reported preying on poultry and livestock. It is mainly active during the day, though nocturnality might be more common in areas frequented by humans. NahidRains' cameras of choice, as Nahid M Helal, the company's CEO and owner, explained, are from Blackmagic: "Once I first got my Blackmagic Cinema Camera, I fell in love with its wide dynamic range and the beautiful images it produced, which the succeeding models, including the Pocket Cinema Camera, Production Camera 4K and URSA also inherit. The bear (Helarctos, or Ursus, malayanus) is often tamed as a pet when young but becomes bad-tempered and dangerous as an adult. [69], The Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Centre, founded by Wong Siew Te in Sabah (Malaysia) in 2008, aims to work for the welfare of sun bears rescued from poor conditions in captivity and spread awareness about their conservation. They do not seem to hibernate, possibly because food resources are available the whole year throughout the range. Called also bruang, and Malayan bear. [1] Population densities vary from 4.3 and 5.9 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) in Khao Yai National Park (Thailand) to 26 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) in the Harapan Rainforest in southern Sumatra. [3][34] They are mainly active during the day, though nocturnality might be more common in areas frequented by humans. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Helarctos definition is - a genus of mammals (family Ursidae). Traduzioni ipotizzate. [63], During surveys in Kalimantan between 1994 and 1997, interviewees admitted to hunting sun bears and indicated that sun bear meat is eaten by indigenous people in several areas in Kalimantan. Test your knowledge with this quiz. [1][26] Fossil remains suggest their occurrence farther north in the Pleistocene; sun bears may have occurred as far south as Java (Indonesia) in the middle to late Pleistocene. Poaching is common in several countries in the region. ( Sander­son, 1972; Ward and Ky­nas­ton, 1995) Biogeographic Regions. [57][58] A survey in Lower Kinabatagan (Malaysia) published in 2017 showed that sun bears were feared but were not common in oil palm plantations; bearded pigs, elephants and macaques were far more damaging to crops. Its unique morphology—inward-turned front feet, flattened chest, powerful forelimbs with large claws—suggests adaptations for climbing. [8][37] Sun bears stand on their hindfeet for a broader view of their surroundings or smell far-off objects; they try to intimidate their enemies by displaying the chest patch if threatened. That means it eats everything it sees - imagine a bear in a supermarket grabbing everything! a small bear, Helarctos malayanus, of tropical forests in S and SE Asia, having a black coat and a yellowish snout and feeding mostly on … The world’s smallest species of bear, the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), has been classed as Vulnerable, while the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) remains in the Endangered category on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.The sun bear’s new status has been accepted for inclusion in the 2007 IUCN Red List. [65][68], The sun bear is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, and is included in CITES Appendix I. The hair is silky and fine, and is the shortest of all bear species, suiting their hot tropical habitat. The sun bear is sympatric with the Asian black bear throughout the remaining areas in the mainland range featuring a mix of seasonal forest types, with monthly rainfall below 100 mm (4 in) for a long spell of three to seven months. Updates? The ~ is the most arboreal bear and builds sleeping nests as high as 18 meters (60 feet) in the trees. [42] A wild female sun bear was swallowed by a large reticulated python in East Kalimantan. [3] Two whirls occur on the shoulders, from whence the hair radiates in all directions. Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus), a bear from the tropical forests and southeast Asia. Their range is prob­a­bly greater than what is ac­tu­ally known. [48] A study in Central Borneo revealed that sun bears play an important role in the seed dispersal of Canarium pilosum (a tree in the family Burseraceae). The bear (Helarctos, or Ursus, malayanus) is often tamed as a pet when young but becomes bad-tempered and dangerous as an adult. Its large forepaws bear long, curved claws, which it uses for tearing or digging in its search for insect nests and colonies, particularly those of bees and termites. 2 Either of two Asian bears, the sloth bear, Melursus ursinus, and the sun bear, Helarctos malayanus. [61][62] A 2007 study in East Borneo recorded severe loss of habitat and food resources due to droughts and forest fires brought about by the El Niño. The eyes open at nearly 25 days but they remain blind till 50 days after birth; the sense of hearing improves over the first 50 days. Also called honey bear, Malayan sun bear. The ~ (Helarctos malayanus) is the smallest bear, weighing 27 to 65 kg (60 to 145 lbs). Generally nocturnal, the tree-climbing sun bear is shy and retiring but quite intelligent. Omissions? Sun bears become sexually mature at two to four years of age. Helarctos malayanus, family Ursidae ‘The lineages leading to the remaining species - the brown bear the black bear the sun bear and the sloth bear - … Born deaf with eyes closed suiting their hot tropical habitat administering poison to protect coconut and snakefruit in!, shy and retiring but quite intelligent administering poison to protect coconut and snakefruit plantations in East.! 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